Bioclimatic architecture is a new type of architecture where balance and harmony are a constant with the environment. It takes into account the climate and the conditions of the environment to help achieve the interior thermal comfort by adapting the design, geometry, orientation and construction of the building adapted to the climatic conditions of its surroundings.
Bioclimatic architecture: The Samurai Way
Bioclimatic Architecture is an architecture adapt to the environment, sensitive to the impact it causes in nature. It tries to minimize energy consumption and with it, environmental pollution.
But a bioclimatic home does not have to be more expensive or cheaper than a conventional one. You do not need the purchase and / or installation of mechanical air conditioning systems. But play with the usual architectural elements to increase energy efficiency and achieve comfort in a natural way. For this, the bioclimatic design supposes a set of restrictions. But still exist degrees of freedom for the design according to the taste of each one.
The bioclimatic architecture takes into account the conditions of the terrain, the course of the Sun, the air currents, etc. Applying these aspects to the distribution of spaces, opening and orientation of windows, etc. In order to achieve energy efficiency.
Roles with design and elements
It plays exclusively with the design and architectural elements, without using mechanical systems. Which are considered rather as support systems. It consists of the design of the buildings taking into account the environment, taking advantage of available resources (sun, vegetation, rain, winds) to ensure that energy consumption for heating, cooling and water are minimal. It is based on the adequacy and positive use of the environmental and material conditions, maintained during the project process and the work.
A logic that starts from the study of climatic and environmental conditions and the adequacy of the architectural design to protect and / or use the different natural processes. In the scope of this interaction between architecture and environment can be established the different levels where the architects currently working in this field are currently working.
Thus, depending on the extent of the global energy balance to which the climatic and environmental adaptation of the architecture is concerned, the different types of bioclimatic buildings could be cataloged.
Construction of energy-smart houses
The construction of energy-smart houses is the answer of the so-called bioclimatic architecture which can save us oil along with the growing use of all kinds of electrical utensils in homes, heating, cooling, etc. But these techniques are acquiring very powerful developments that lead us to more ambitious goals. Traditionally the concept of bioclimatic architecture was very simple: it was about taking advantage of the climate and the conditions of the environment in order to take advantage of the best conditions of thermal comfort in the house, mainly based on the design and architectural elements.
This concept has been evolving towards ideas capable of responding to energy and environmental demands, making it possible to speak today of “sustainable architecture or construction”. Advances such as reusable materials, or home automation come together to achieve really interesting developments. In any case, it is important to note that, far from being a system based on rigid immutable principles, bio-climatic architecture must characterized by a radical departure from dogmatic or fundamentalist positions.
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If something really flexible and variable exists, it is precisely the natural environment. An architecture that maintains as a philosophy the adequacy to this, must also be able to be considered as an open system and adapted to the user. It often marked by factors foreign to the environmental rationality. In this sense, far from being a problem, bioclimatic architecture. In fact, it has always been the case with good architecture. It must combine a series of interests that can be, to some extent, opposed.
What does architectural sustainability cover?
These are the points to consider for architectural sustainability.
- A multidisciplinary team
- To emphasize the importance of the exterior treatment of the building
- Form of housing
- Building Orientation
- Implementation of systems for energy saving
- Passive solar energy collection systems
- Implementation of renewable energies
- Thermal mass
- Insulation Systems
- Ventilation Systems
- Land use
- Cap spaces
- Evaporative refrigeration systems
- Design of systems for the preheating of water, using solar panels
- Saving water
- Rainwater harvesting
- Controlled ventilation galleries
- Water and temperature regulating water plant systems
- Decreased energy consumption and with it, environmental pollution
- Natural light collection systems (especially important in northern areas of Europe)
- Natural air conditioning
- Control and management systems to optimize the use of energy (home automation).
- Radiation protection in summer
- Use of environmentally friendly materials.
The flexibility of the bioclimatic architecture must always allow a balance between all the factors. Therefore, reach the possible objectives within each level of exigency. It will change in relation to the needs, the conditions and the degree of socio- economic. The gradual evolution of ecological awareness, in an optimistic assumption, will allow the proposed solutions to be increasingly effective in terms of energy, comfort, environmental quality and, of course, in economic terms.